Not known Incorrect Statements About Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta

Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta Can Be Fun For Anyone

An additional model is this: a Fake Information clickbait thing claims that a major celeb has actually been apprehended. In these circumstances the celebs can sue and go after the websites and also the search engines to secure takedown and delisting.

The inquiry that postures is: if the technology is quickly to end up being offered to produce fake images of anyone and anything, how will this influence the public's assumption of whether product is true or false? Perversely this could have the result of compromising the effect of all mass media and throwing people back onto their trusted personal networks for the development of their viewpoints as well as concepts.

Crossbreed media drives a vicious circle The hybridisation of social and traditional media is increasingly usual. Individuals engage with concepts they run into initially on social media frequently Twitter but increasingly Instagram, Facebook and also Snapchat and also after that the reality of that involvement alone moves it into what's currently typically called the mainstream media.

All About Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta

GH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori AttaGH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori Atta
You get a tale about a tweet that went viral; you obtain tales about how people react to tweets, reporting the replies to a tweet. This way we see a vicious circle of news reporting, raising the profile of particular ideas and helping to construct those suggestions, irrespective of whether they are real, and irrespective of whether declarations are being reported in context or out of context - GH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori Atta.


What various other highly connected societies will follow this course? What political leaders require to understand is that they can now utilize new media to link directly with their core support base, as Trump finishes with Twitter, as Corbyn makes with Facebook - GH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori Atta. In the last instance it's interesting that Corbyn's response to the recent allegations of call with foreign spies was to ridicule the insurance claims on a video clip that was then shared numerous times on social media.

GH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori AttaGH Celebrities talked about Cedi to Dollar Wahala on Social media + Ken Ofori Atta
This compromises the centre and also pushes individuals from the margins to leadership. It likewise favours those that have pre-existing celebrity, or who can find solid institutional bases of assistance for their antiestablishment views. Trump as an example had actually spent a lot of his previous life current media, as a residential property developer, as a womanizer, as a gameshow host, as a person leading a somewhat egotistical celeb life.

Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta - Truths

Whether this is good or bad depends on your viewpoint. To some it brings inclusiveness as well as a market of concepts; to others, distorted public spheres, silos and echo chambers. But something is clear. No political leader and no consultant to those energetic in the public sphere can pay for to overlook this new terrain.

An additional model is this: a Counterfeit Information clickbait item claims that a major celeb has been jailed. In these instances the celebs can take legal action against and go after the sites as well as the search engines to secure takedown as well as delisting.

This opens up a whole new order of hazard. It started naturally in porn but will no question quickly relocate right into political misrepresentation, commercial malpractice as well as criminal blackmail. The inquiry that poses is: if the tech is soon to come to be available to create fake pictures of any individual and also anything, just how will this impact the public's understanding of whether product is real or false? How does one make sense of the world, how does one obtain a world view? Perversely this could have the effect of damaging the influence of all mass media and also throwing people back onto their trusted personal networks for the formation of their point of views and also concepts.

Indicators on Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta You Should Know

Nowadays, individuals feel the demand to find out more concerning celebrities' lives and detraction news than any kind of various other form of information or amusement such as publications or other healthy and balanced habits. For that reason, the media today provides a lot even more information concerning well-known individuals's personal lives after that it did in the past as well as often times these news cover various other worth analysis subjects.

Many of the reality shows nowadays are based upon famous people as well as their exclusive lives and there are no limits for that. This can only be a bad impact on our today's culture as it supplies poor instances for individuals. First of all, so much interest for the celebs and also their scandals creates false concepts regarding culture, specifically for youngsters.

All producing a misconception of how easy life can be when you have cash and also you are also renowned. Then are the rumors, well-known rumors not just from the current years, such as separations for instance useful site in between Prince Charles and Princess Diana, Brad Pitt and Jenifer Aniston, a couple of years later on, Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie.

Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta Fundamentals Explained

Websites like or Perezhilton. com have no borders as well as they submit any information they can get, in order for individuals to check out. Most of these are simply unrefined and also vulgar however individuals still access these look at this web-site internet sites, and why is that? Maybe since people enjoy this type of home entertainment even it is something totally unneeded to their lives.

Second of all, an additional negative effect that celeb chatter and detraction information carry our society is the fantastic quantity of time that people invest reviewing this sort of news that doesn't bring anything valorous to their lives neither load their minds with unnecessary info that at some point will be failed to remember.

There is no inquiry that as a result of that individuals often tend to neglect the vital information that they might require in their lives. In the U.S.A. as an example, according to Rasmussen Reports a nationwide telephone survey in 2013 revealed that 81% of the Americans confess that individuals invest excessive time reviewing detraction news as well as gossips instead than real news that would have an actual and also essential impact on their lives.

Not known Facts About Gh Celebrities Talked About Cedi To Dollar Wahala On Social Media + Ken Ofori Atta

Angelina Jolie's choice to proceed a dual mastectomy in order to protect her from at some point illness such as ovarian or bust cancer had "a substantial impact on people's choices, fears, as well as actions". So much attention being concentrated on celebrities likewise influences their lives. They require to spend their entire personal lives before the general public because the detraction press is constantly ready to compose a post on whatever that well-known individuals linked here do, how they live, what they consume, what relationships they have, with that, just how they party, where they go.

While some stars like the focus provided by the press, not all are enjoying living their lives in the spotlight as well as having actually every move complied with by reporters or stalkers. "Individuals" publication revealed stunning meetings with artists that "will make you never intend to be popular". The design Gigi Hadid revealed that "I've shed a great deal of friends since I'll get hectic for a brief time period and also they're not getting to out".


The Ultimate Guide To Linkdaddy News

All about Linkdaddy News


All examples within each nation were country wide depictive. Half of the example apparently spent for a print paper in the past 7 days, and also only one-twentieth of the sample spent for online information in the previous 7 days. That only 5% of the example had lately paid for on the internet paper accessibility is likely due to the fact that many people access news that is cost-free.

Additionally, younger people25- to 34-year-oldsare a lot more ready to pay for electronic information than older people across all countries. This is in line with the Bench Proving ground's finding in a survey of united state Americans that the Internet is a leading resource of information for people less than 50. Not all posts released on-line receive the exact same quantity of focus, there are factors that identify their appeal.

They hence have a passion in knowing the number of shares, preferably even anticipating it prior to the post is being published. With brand-new approaches of such as it is possible to get understandings into the core features of a short article. A group of Portuguese scientists retrieved data from the site as well as made the dataset publicly offered.




Some Known Factual Statements About Linkdaddy News

One "category evaluation". 30 November 2020. utilized device learning approaches, particularly,,, as well as to anticipate the top 10 percent most regularly shared write-ups. The verdict is, that the ordinary keyword phrases within a post as well as the average appeal of stated key words have the best influence on the quantity of shares a short article receives.

What is the advantages of checking out paper? Newspapers give information and basic knowledge. Papers provide information about a nation's financial situation, sporting activities, games, entertainment, trade and also business. Checking out newspaper makes an excellent routine and also it is already component of the modern life. This routine will broaden your expectation and will improve your knowledge.

By reading newspaper each day, you're better furnished to create point of views on things that are currently occurring, as well as you're additionally likelier to be prepared if a world event has a direct effect on your life. Function of a News Article News short articles are contacted notify as well as enlighten viewers on current affairs/events.




A Biased View of Linkdaddy News

I got the practice of reviewing Newspapers from a very young age and currently, every one of 22, I still can't seem to get sufficient of it. If I haven't read the day's paper, it's as if something important has actually not been done! Their major goal is to inform us about existing occasions in our life.

Several individuals think that, papers are crucial in our culture, owing to truth that they supply us the most up to date news as well as keeps us educated regarding the changing occasions of the world. Using the paper as an academic resource aids trainees to: Develop a far better understanding of their area, state, nation and globe.




LinkDaddy NewsLinkDaddy News
Whenever there are any type of changes in the policies and guidelines of the country, papers make us aware of them. Yes Papers are pertinent even currently. Information Papers still continue to supply in-depth info about the happenings around the globe.




All About Linkdaddy News

2. Really, no - If you favor checking out newspaper rather of reviewing news on the net, it will not be a wild-goose chase. Sometimes you can discover much more interested articles in press than on sites - people that are creating it are extra focused on their work. Originally Responded to: Is checking out information a wild-goose chase? Read the first paragraphs of the posts.




LinkDaddy NewsLinkDaddy News




Originally Addressed: Just how much time does look at here it takes to review a paper? Check out the headings, set apart clingy information as well as desired news, REQUIREMENT & WANT, read only the news headed as to your need, not ass to your desire.

It offers details and also opinions about current events and also information. Normally people like to read them to stay notified about their local city, state or nation. Papers can be provided to one's home, by subscription. Paper Readership is Impressive! Greater than 124 million united state grownups, or more than 6 out of 10, read paper media weekly.




Linkdaddy News Things To Know Before You Buy

Numerous well-known papers and publications have actually begun to offer their prize of most recent information and enjoyment online. There are several online publications that release information, soft information, and function products.

This is most likely the primary reason for its big charm. We may obtain access to numerous story without leaving the comfort zone of our house by just reviewing the trending viral information online on numerous various newspaper as well as magazine websites (LinkDaddy News). Reading information as well as magazines is an amazing routine to establish considering that it is like a treasure and also might bring a great deal of academic value.




LinkDaddy NewsLinkDaddy News
This practice will not only increase your general understanding, but it will certainly additionally assist you improve your language abilities and vocabulary. Many individuals have created the behavior of reviewing day-to-day information as well as magazines online and their days seem insufficient without them (LinkDaddy News). The adhering to are a few of the benefits of checking out day-to-day information as well as magazines: Strengthens reading & creating abilities These are the finest resources for improving analysis skills due to the fact that they involve visitors as active students.




Fascination About Linkdaddy News

Initially Answered: Just how much time does it requires to read a newspaper? Optimum of 24 minutes. Review the headings, set apart needy information as well as desired news, DEMAND & WANT, reviewed only the information headed as to your demand, not ass to your desire. Reviewed the headings determine the useful headings go one by one.

It offers information as well as point of views about present occasions and news. Normally individuals like to read them to stay notified about their neighborhood city, state or nation. Newspapers can be provided to one's house, by registration. Newspaper Readership is Remarkable! Greater than 124 million united state adults, or more than 6 out of 10, checked out paper media weekly.

Several popular papers as well as publications have actually begun to offer their treasure of latest information and also enjoyment online. There are a number of on the internet publications that publish information, soft information, as well as feature items.




The Single Strategy To Use For Linkdaddy News

This is probably the key reason for its big allure. We may get access to many story without leaving the convenience zone of official source our residence by just reviewing the trending viral news online on a number of different paper and publication websites. Checking out information as well as publications is a wonderful habit to establish given that it is like a prize as well as might bring a great deal explanation of educational worth.

This technique will not just boost your general expertise, but it will likewise assist you boost your language skills as well as vocabulary. Several individuals have established the habit of reading everyday information and magazines online as well as their days appear incomplete without them. The following are a few of the benefits of checking out daily news as well as publications: Reinforces reading & writing skills These are the finest sources for boosting reading skills since they involve visitors as energetic students.

5 Easy Facts About News Site Explained

The Ultimate Guide To Media Coverage


They should pull a sprinkle (front page) or leading story out of the bag in an immediate! An excellent public connections professional will certainly look for to develop a healthy and balanced working partnership with the top press reporter. Their influence in the newsroom is significant. The simple response is, be the ideal you can (Greyden Press Authors).





In a typical print publication, every press reporter desires their byline on the dash. Every reporter desires the most effective get in touches with publication in the newsroom. Every reporter seeks to promote their visitor and also yell out for the underdog. Be the best you can. And also remember it's not a nine to five job.

Wherever you are and regardless of the time, constantly realize you can be onto a story. News Press Release. The chief reporter has strong experience as a reporter. They have actually verified themselves again as well as once more in a hectic newsroom. They're most likely to have their NCTJ qualifications (in the UK) as well as have actually functioned for a minimum of five years in an affordable newsroom.

They must use their experience to help a junior press reporter develop their own skills. They will certainly also test press reporters, setting high requirements and also expectations. The principal press reporter must hold your horses, tranquility under stress whilst meeting multiple deadlines. They will be expert at discovering the tale, talking to people as well as composing copy.




The Ultimate Guide To News Press Release

Some chief reporters may be outstanding at getting the tale, developing trusting partnerships as well as keeping get in touches with. They might not be always great authors. However copy can be improved by the news editor and also sub-editors. The key is in finding and also creating a story. The trick is in keeping a healthy and balanced calls publication of people you can call time and again.

When working under limited deadline pressure, an editor needs to have 100% trust fund in their leading reporter. The chief press reporter is 'chief' simply because they are the most competent press reporter in the newsroom.

They must; Resource stories off journal and also on diary Interview Create a strong introductory followed by streaming copy Maintain exact notes Submit copy to tight target date Suggest attention grabbing headings Keep a solid calls book Have the ability to build strong relationships On top of that, to the over the principal press reporter must collect routine information checklists from press reporters.

They should act both as coach, supervisor as well as champion for the press reporters. The principal press reporter will certainly not only be pitching their own stories to the news editor, however additionally the reporters' tales. The added obligations of the chief reporter potentially mean their story count is less. However, the quality of their tales and also research study will certainly be outstanding.




The Press Statement PDFs

It is their work to determine the tales for publication. Those considered for publication will certainly be discussed with the news editor. Press launches need to be short as well as well offered.




NewsMedia Coverage
Newsrooms like well-written launches. You may desire to send out the launch to the principal press reporter as well as the news desk as well as state in your email that you have done that.

They will all get binned! The chief press reporter has one major concern: obtaining the most effective stories for their publication. They will certainly work closely with the information editor to ensure their product/site/publication preserves integrity and is relied on by its readers. They will certainly collaborate with a PR agency on major concerns that matter to the publication.

It is not the principal reporter's work to make you look excellent. Their obligation as well as responsibility are to their visitors and magazine. The very best media relationships campaigns understand that they have to handle real stories if they are to succeed. Do this as well as they will like you just do not ever spam them! There you have it, our complete guide to the principal press reporter.




The Main Principles Of Media Coverage


NewsMedia Coverage
For newspaper editors, absolutely nothing takes the side off an early increase like the possibility of seeing what other individuals have been discussing. Reviewing the everyday papers is a crucial component in the majority of newsrooms particularly at local/regional titles as it supplies a review of the general public conversations in which your web content participates.




News Press ReleasePress Release
Below are a few of things they should be searching for: e. g. The Mirror is saying X regarding Y; yet Vogue has a completely different take. What's our position? all can be made use of to produce topical content, and can also be passed on to your social networks executive(s), to feed into their work what are your rivals doing much better than you? Highlight superior items of web content, presentational strategies and also other bright concepts Keep in mind: the goal of this exercise isn't to select all the fads, subjects as well as journalistic ideas within the resource products; it's to highlight points with particular significance to your brand name and audience.

We can't simply utilize the conventions we recognize as the best; we need to select the conventions which are best for the brand name. To this end, assess your brand name guidelines and also chosen style guide side-by-side. Where oppositions occur, function out the service that functions finest with your branding, after that edit the design guide accordingly. Press Statement.

"we don't use listicles", "we do not produce negative content", "we aim to consist of item details regularly" Legal notes/advice on dealing with contentious subject In a newsroom, prime responsibility for adhering to the style overview lies with the sub-editors, that likewise proofread and fact-check the harsh copy submitted by reporters. Not every brand journalism procedure puts out sufficient material to justify employing a full-time sub-editor, which raises the inquiry: who is in go charge of implementing the style overview? You might take into consideration one of these choices: Designate a specifically exact writer from the team to spend a specific amount of time each week on sub-editing.

Some Known Facts About Swaziland Politics.

More About Kingdom Of Eswatini


Frequently, no reporter turns up at community council meetings, nor do the journalists at lots of newspapers obtain the time or encouragement to produce thorough logical items that light up and also inform ( Consequently, Facebook has actually ended up being the default medium for sharing regional news. Second, strong local papers have actually built neighborhood by encouraging local financial growth and advancement.

Nevertheless, print newspaper advertising and marketing, which has traditionally furnished 75 to 90% of overall earnings, is at an all-time low as well as remains to decline. Making issues worse, as high as 75% of the bucks devoted to digital marketing in also the tiniest markets most likely to Facebook as well as Google, leaving all other media electrical outlets radio, tv, online as well as print to deal with over the rest.

Simply as all national politics is local, all information that matters is inevitably regional - King Mswati. Readers of local papers are citizens not just of a region, but likewise of a region, a state and a country. Solid wire service take into local context issues that might seem to be nationwide or local ones, such as healthcare, weapon control, or the opioid situation.

But that sort of journalism calls for the economic wherewithal to endure the legal difficulties that occur when a local information company needs to take legal action against to obtain public records, for instance. As earnings margins have decreased from dual to solitary digits, lots of authors currently reconsider previously providing the go-ahead on possibly questionable and lengthy investigations.




Our Swaziland News PDFs



Revitalizing and also recovering count on in media starts at the regional degree - King Mswati. If we can find out how to craft as well as carry out lasting information organization versions in our tiniest, poorest markets, we can then empower journalistic business owners to revitalize and also recover count on media from the grassroots level up, in whatever kind print, program or electronic.

Our study has actually located that solid neighborhood papers typically delight in significant commitment from both present readers as well as advertisers at rates as long as twice that of our national and regional documents. Yet marketers adhere to target markets, so wire service need to comply with the modern technology and follow their consumers if they are going to adhere to the cash.




Swaziland ProtestsEswatini News
Service models that function for large nationwide and local news companies will possibly not work in tiny and mid-sized markets. Smaller news organizations have much less area for error.

Information companies that prosper are positive as well as spend for the lasting. Both start-up and tradition information procedures require to have a method in position for changing at least a third of their service design every 5 years ( They require to establish five-year monetary goals for expenses, income, as well as success and afterwards function backwards to build a business strategy recognizing and focusing on ventures probably to lead to lasting profitability and also sustainability.




All about Swaziland News

But there are still numerous pressures that continue to be past the control of private publishers, editors as well as creators of regional news organizations particularly those in neighborhoods that are battling financially, where the loss of a major employer or advertiser, as an example, can tip the equilibrium. There go right here are an array of possible services, consisting of encouraging partnerships amongst as well as between information companies and also establishments, funding civic engagement and journalistic protection of under-represented neighborhoods as well as "flyover areas" of the country that remain in risk of ending up being information deserts, and also updating federal government policies and guidelines to show electronic truths and urge information competition.

Through their journalism, strong local news companies have the ability to not only educate us as people, however likewise reveal us how we're attached to individuals we might not recognize we're linked to. We require to see to it that whatever changes the 20th century variation of regional papers serves the very same academic and also community-building functions.

It will certainly take a community of individuals as well as organizations functioning together to support the kind of solid local journalism that restores count on in our local media, creates solid attachment to our neighborhoods, and also feeds our democracy at the grassroots level -




Swaziland NewsSwaziland News
media upgrade's Talisa Jansen van Rensburg takes an appearance at the value of regional information and also why people need to shield these newsrooms whatsoever costs. While lots of people rely upon big news electrical outlets and also tech giants, such as Google and Facebook, to obtain their news, these operations only provide an overview of the 'big' tales.




The 6-Second Trick For What's Happening In Swaziland

Currently is the time for people to begin knowing that high-quality is extremely helpful and also crucial for communities as well. When customers begin counting on huge news firms such as News24 as well as IOL, they become less inclined to figure out what is occurring right there in their very own area. 'Big news' that is occurring on a worldwide range decreases the passion that the public has in the smaller-scale news feeds.

You may review something in News24 about a political celebration doing a wonderful work on a nationwide scale, which is all good and well to know. Back in your suburban area, it could be an additional political event that is really doing the great job that directly affects you therefore highlighting the significance of neighborhood information media.

It educates homeowners and also communities in details locations concerning the truth of present concerns that they are encountering and also will certainly be extra straight affected by. Without regional news, it is easier for neighborhoods to simply approve what huge news electrical outlets need to say about the current state of the country to be true -

Democracy rules when South Africans are provided a sight of current events, ranging from regional to international. Knowing the truth about the state of the nation can not be totally obtained without the factor to consider of how the viewers themselves are being impacted at home. If local journalists weren't around to report on the information in each suburb, you would at some point see an increase of underhanded conduct in regional business and organisations.

Media Coverage - The Facts

Indicators on News You Need To Know


It additionally consists of the ability to gain as much direct exposure online making use of a news release distribution solution that can really supply. If a press release shows up on numerous media websites with an appreciable level of audience, brand presence will certainly boost significantly gradually. Prior to selecting a PR distribution solution, make sure you obtain the very best worth for your bucks in regards to insurance coverage - Press Release.

Do refrain this at the cost of top quality. A reliable solution carrier should additionally assure fast indexation of press releases. Doing this will certainly guarantee your target market sees the most recent information regarding your business while looking for appropriate keywords online. At the same time, journalists can easily user interface with your statement when they need to make a report on comparable subjects.




Hairpin Letter PressNews Site

Prior to you create and also release a news release, ask "Is there news value in this tale? Frequently companies write news release regarding subjects that are not relevant. Fact: if the journalist does not consider it your release newsworthy and also appealing, it won't obtain protection. There are crucial elements that reporters searches for in a news release - the human interest angle is vital.




The Main Principles Of Press Release

, answer the following questions: That are the key players - your company, any individual else involved with the item? Who does your information affect/who does it profit? Why is this news essential - what does it tell people that they need to understand?





Study suggests 42% of SMEs think freelancers are more productive than routine team. Conserve your business time and money as well as get top ideas on finding as well as managing freelancers in our free overview. One of the most crucial thing to think regarding when composing a news release is the target market. The visitors of a niche publication or site will be very various to those that read the neighborhood newspaper.

When thinking of the audience, consider what knowledge they have concerning your business and also item, and the type of language they will recognize. The language utilized to define manufacturing processes, for instance, may be relevant for a specialist design audience, however except the public. The response is, as few paragraphs as you need to get your factors across.




News for Dummies

Keep the duplicate as limited as feasible. You need to get all the crucial info into the initial paragraph of a press launch. The test of success is whether the story can be recognized in its entirety simply by reading the first paragraph. The 2nd paragraph increases on the very first, providing a little bit extra detail.

The 4th paragraph describes final details, such as other items in development. A great press launch should take a tone and also be and also, giving the journalist the essence of the tale.




Press ReleasePress Release
Keep in mind that it can be discouraging for journalists to obtain information under embargo that can not be released quickly. A stoppage does not mean that reporters can not contact you about your story. It just suggests that you are asking not to publish it before a certain date. The job of the press launch title is to grab interest and also urge the reporter to learn more.




Some Known Factual Statements About News Press Release

Signify the end of the press release with the word "Ends" in strong. After "Ends", create "For more info, please get in touch with" as well as provide your information or those of an assigned individual.

Examples might include background info on the firm (called a boilerplate), or a note claiming that photos are available. It's handy to number these factors, to make your press launch as clean as feasible.

This will certainly enable you Visit Website to customize your story to suit. For any kind of newspaper article, there are numerous angles that can be made use of. If a business introduces a brand-new item, there may be gas mileage in targeting any, or all, of the following: regional press (the area in which the company is based); specialist press (the business's sector); professional press (checked out by people that will certainly gain from the news in the release); consumer press (if there is an extra mainstream advantage); national press (if there is a significant influence or modification).




The Definitive Guide to News Site

You might be smart not to release a time-sensitive press release to that audience on a Wednesday. Normally, you need to send a press release by email. Any kind of press release sent by e-mail needs to be pasted into the email instead than sent out as an attachment - this may see your email flagged as spam.

If you have photos to utilize with your press launch, after that supply them. It's an excellent means to obtain your message throughout, as well as can be rather striking.

If people are consisted of, state "Left to right" then note the people in the shot and any type of additional information that's relevant (ie where, when, etc). Created by Debbie Leven of The Public Relations Train.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15